The purpose of the 1st Congressional District Republican Committee is to promote and promulgate the principles of the Republican Party, to encourage qualified candidates to run for public office, to elect Republican candidates to public office, to assist generally the citizens composing the units served by the District Committee, and to assist elected Republican officials in the execution of their responsibilities.

The 1st District Committee includes the following counties and localities: Caroline, Essex, Fauquier (portion), Fredericksburg, Gloucester, Hanover, James City/Williamsburg, King and Queen, King George, King William, Lancaster, Mathews, Middlesex, New Kent, Northumberland, Prince William (portion), Richmond, Spotsylvania (portion), Stafford, and Westmoreland.